Where FGM is a social convention social normthe social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing, as well as the need to be accepted socially and the fear of being rejected by the community, are strong motivations to perpetuate the practice.
It said more than million girls and women alive today had undergone a procedure now opposed by the majority in countries where it was practised. When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed type 3the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM.
Building on a previous report fromin UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally. In some communities, FGM is almost universally performed and unquestioned.
However, criminalisation of entrenched cultural practices has its limitations. Mr Sibenaler noted that although achievements have been made in the fight against the deeply rooted cultural practice through sensitisation and access to education, a lot still wants to make the vice history.
In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups.
The guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of the best available evidence on health interventions for women living with FGM.
Sincegreat efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Figure 1 — Percentage distribution of ages at which girls have undergone FGM as reported by their mothers Source: Globally, the World Health organisation estimates that more than million girls and women have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated" Uganda banned FGM in punishing a person convicted of the practice up to 10 years in jail among other sentences.
In Nigeria, this law provides them with a legal framework and backing to tackle the problem. They were three times less likely than their mothers to have been cut in Kenya and Tanzania, and rates had dropped by almost half in Benin, the Central African Republic, Iraq, Liberia and Nigeria.
Cultural and social factors for performing FGM The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities. Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.
Several regional and national fatwas have followed in the years since. Kenya and Tanzania have seen rates drop to a third of their levels three decades ago through a combination of community activism and legislation.
Doing so involves laws and policies, as well as community level engagement and programmes that work to empower girls directly. The answer is no.
Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. In countries like Egypt, Kenya and Sudan it is being performed by medical providers. Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out.
Like all issues, it will take time, effort and education in order to move forward. FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered acceptable sexual behaviour. In Eritrea, for example, a survey in found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinyamost of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category.
In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five.
Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary tract infections and the presence of scar tissue.
The report recommends opening up the practice to greater public scrutiny so that entrenched social attitudes to it can be challenged. Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area? These are external links and will open in a new window Close share panel Image caption The challenge is to let people - men and women - have their voices heard on the issue, Unicef says More than 30 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation FGM over the next decade, a study by Unicef has found.
Overall, an adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. It is crucial that we scale up efforts to change traditional cultural views that underpin violence against women.
Integrated and culturally-sensitive programmes including community conversations and education about human rights and fundamental values with adults, adolescents and religious leaders allow community members to discuss alternative ways of doing the best for their daughters without having them cut.
In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk?‘As many as 30 million girls are at risk of being cut over the next decade if current trends persist.'” Female Genital Mutilation: A Statistical Overview.
According to ultimedescente.com: “The report, ‘Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change’, was released in Washington DC.
Statement by Geert Cappelaere, UNICEF Regional Director for the Middle East and North Africa, on Syrian children freezing to death while crossing from Syria to Lebanon hundreds of millions more girls will suffer profound, permanent, and utterly unnecessary harm.
For more data on female genital mutilation/cutting. The group said at least 13, additional girls were at risk of female genital mutilation (FGM), which is banned in Germany. Weil said that. Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually. More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1.
Learn about female genital cutting from the Office on Women's Health. Researchers estimate more thangirls and women in the U.S. have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C. 1 Worldwide, in the southern Sahara, and in parts of the Middle East .Download