Find our more on writing high-quality research papers You may also like. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr.
Writing an introduction The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points.
Space is so valuable in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, that authors are asked to restrict discussions to four pages or less, double spaced, typed. Consider the following two examples: Single paragraph, and concise As a summary of work done, it is always written in past tense An abstract should stand on its own, and not refer to any other part of the paper such as a figure or table Focus on summarizing results - limit background information to a sentence or two, if absolutely necessary What you report in an abstract must be consistent with what you reported in the paper Corrrect spelling, clarity of sentences and phrases, and proper reporting of quantities proper units, significant figures are just as important in an abstract as they are anywhere else Introduction Your introductions should not exceed two pages double spaced, typed.
Your papers are to adhere to the form and style required for the Journal of Biological Chemistry, requirements that are shared by many journals in the life sciences. Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
See the examples in the writing portfolio package Report the methodology not details of each procedure that employed the same methodology Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc.
However, there are instances when it is appropriate to compare or contrast your results with findings from previous and similar studies.
Were adverse effects reported? Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key resultswithout interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures.
Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.
General intent The objective here is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusions, using evidence from your experiment and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate. See recommendations for content, below. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims.
Seedlings or mature plants?
Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. If you are citing an on line journal, use the journal citation name, volume, year, page numbers. When I research a topic, I may be interested in just the methods, a specific result, the interpretation, or perhaps I just want to see a summary of the paper to determine if it is relevant to my study.
The groups did not differ significantly in age, weight, height, ASA status, or doses of intraoperative drugs. If you prefer, you may place your figures and tables appropriately within the text of your results section. Describe the importance significance of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place?
Our research papers are not typical "lab reports. To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab.running head: how to write the methods, results, and discussion 1 Title: How to Write a Research Paper Method, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions Without Developing an Overwhelming and Compulsive Urge to Kill.
For most research paper formats in the social and behavioral sciences, there are two possible ways of presenting and organizing the results.
Both approaches are appropriate in how you report your findings, but use only one format or the other. Writing Research Papers. There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper.
List all literature cited in your paper, in alphabetical order, by first author. In a proper research paper, only primary literature is used. The results section of an APA format paper summarizes the data that was collected and the statistical analyses that were performed.
The goal of this section is to report the results without any type of subjective interpretation.
The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, Don't Write Two Results Sections!
For most research paper formats, there are two ways of presenting and organizing the results. The first method is to present the results and add a short discussion explaining them at the end, before leading into the discussion proper.Download